A character who is a target of a hostile spell  will automatically try to resist the spell by rolling under
his or her magical resistance.
  The character's Magic Resistance is determined whenever it is used by adding
to the character's Willpower any modifications due to the character's Magic College or lack of a College as well as
special modifiers for Counter spells and general situation at the moment the check is made. A character's chances
of resisting magic may be increased by casting a Counter spell over the character.
 A character who is conscious  and unstunned may make a Resistance  Check to determine if he
successfully avoids the effects of a spell.
The character's player rolls D100. If the resulting number is equal
to or less than the character's Magic Resistance  the character resists the spell and it has no effect upon him.
Otherwise, the character is affected normally by the spell. A character is never prevented from making a
Resistance Check because he is engaged in other activity at the same time.
A Resistance Check is an
automatic function.
It is implemented any time the character's player states that he wishes to attempt to resist a
resistible spell which is about to take effect on him. Each character may only make one Resistance Check per
spell cast  over him. Characters who are struck by a spell as part of a backfire result may resist.
A character's Magic resistance will be affected by whether or not he is under the protection of a
counter spell.
A counter spell is cast in exactly the same manner as any other type of spell, but it is cast only
over a single specific character or area and has as its object defeating the effects of other  spells cast by
members of the specific College against which the counter spell is directed. There are  two for each College. The
General Knowledge spells of each College are inhibited in their operation by the General Knowledge counter spell
for that College. The Special Knowledge spells of each College are inhibited in their operation by the Special
Knowledge counter spell for that College. The counter spells affecting one College will not affect any other College
and the counter spells for a particular College will only affect the type of spell against which they are directed
(General or Special).
A character is always considered to acquire as part of his General Knowledge the
counter spells affecting his College upon joining that College. He may learn the counter spells
affecting other Colleges only by finding a member of another College willing to teach that College's
counter spells and spending time and money learning the two counter spells.
   Note: Counter spells are the only spells of a College other than his own that a character can learn. They are an
exception to the general rule that one can know only the spell's of one's own College. Members of the College of
Incantors specialize in knowing the counter spells for all Colleges. Consequently, Incantors receive a special
benefit in regard to counter spells. All counter spells of Colleges other than a character's own College may only be
practiced by a character at Rank 0 (i.e., unranked) unless he is a member of the College of Incantations , in which
case he may achieve Rank with them. Counter spells are always General Knowledge Spells of the College to
which they apply, but are considered Special Knowledge spells when learned by a character of another College.
All counter spells of all Colleges are General Knowledge spells of the College of Incantations. A counter spell of
any type may be cast on one character (including the caster, himself) or on the occupants or objects in a circle 15
feet in diameter (or 7 hexes on the Tactical Display). It will always add 30 (+3 per Rank) to the Magic resistance of
a character over which it is cast (only) for purposes of resisting the type of spell to which it applies. For example, a
counter spell affecting General Knowledge spells of the College of Air Magics increases the Magic resistance of
the character over which it was cast only when that character was resisting General Knowledge of the College of
Air Magics. It would not protect or assist the character when resisting the spells of other Colleges or Special
Knowledge spells of that same College. Note: If a counter spell is cast over a subject which normally does not
resist magic, it has a Magic Resistance of 30.
A counter spell may be cast over an area instead of an individual. When cast over an area, any
individual occupying that area may not use a spell of the type affected by the counter spell until he
vacates the affected area.
All individuals in the area would add 30 +3 per Rank to their magic resistance when
resisting the type of magic affecting the counter spell so long as they occupied the area affected by the counter
spell, but would not be so protected if they moved out of the 15 foot diameter area of the counter spell. Counter
spells cast over an area in combat must be cast over a single hex and the six adjacent hexes (but the area
affected could be doubled or tripled as a result of an effective cast). A counter spell lasts for a number of minutes
equal to the results of minutes equal to the results of a D10 die roll and an additional 1 per Rank.
A character or
area may never have counter spells affecting more than one College cast over him at the same time.
a being or area were already under the effects of a counter spell affecting more than one College, any counter
spell affecting another College would not effect him. He would still be affected if he occupied an area over which a
counter spell affecting another College had been cast, but only for so long as he occupied the area. A character
may never benefit from more than one counter spell against a particular spell (i.e., he could not benefit from two
counter spells against, say, the General Knowledge of the College of Illusion). A character may always use magic
even when under the protection of a counter spell (including a counter spell affecting his College). Only area
counter spells inhibit the casting of the spell itself. A spell or ritual may never be performed on ground that has a
counter spell over it affecting the College of which the magic is a part.
The following list of characteristics applies to all counter spells for all Colleges of magic:

Range: 25 feet + 25 additional/Rank
Duration: [D+5]+1 additional/Rank
Exp Multiple: 100 (for General Knowledge Counter spell) or 200 (for Special Knowledge Counter spell)
Base Chance: 40%
Resist: May only be passively resisted.

   The following modifications affect a character's Magic Resistance by the numbers shown:
                       Target and Caster are of the same Branch of Magic              
+ 15
                       Target and Caster are of opposed Branches of Magic            - 15
                       Target is not a member of any college of magic                     + 20
                       Target is under protection of counter spell affecting spell      + 30*
                        Target is standing on consecrated ground                            + 50
                                                                                                                   *Plus 3 per Rank